The Resultant of Forces
The Empire Club of Canada Addresses (Toronto, Canada), 18 Apr 1963, p. 275-288
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The Resultant of Forces

The complex nature of productivity. The effect on productivity of the economies of scale. Measuring competitive ability by the value added to the finished goods per employee in a manufacturing firm. Figures from Canada. The optimum sized industry as the criteria of contribution to productivity. The attribute of specialization and how it contributes to high productivity. Some examples. Factors that can change the measurement of what a competitive industry is; for example, climate and policies for trade at a national level. Research as another major contributor to productivity as it provides new markets and new demands which must be filled. The need for research in Canada. Results from the Bureau of Statistics surveys. Canada at a disadvantage with relatively few large companies that can provide support for industrial research on a national scale. The factor of foreign ownership and investment. The role of Canada's Federal Government in GATT and how that affects the ability of the Canadian economy to compete. The effects of the Combines Act and its flexibility. The need for a climate accepting of change. Policies and goals set by Provincial Government, and their effects on productivity, such as the competition between provinces for attracting industry. Other factors such as educational plans in the provinces, the labour force, the attitudes of labour representatives, cooperation between labour and personnel and industrial relations people, labour-management-government cooperation, the ability of senior management, new trade policy developments, the appearance of new countries in the world market for industrial products. All of the above and more are discussed as forces working in our land, the resultant of which is our national ability to compete and to employ all of our people and to maintain and improve our standard of living. Looking at other countries, and their endeavours to harness these forces and guide them. The lack of planning and cooperation between management-labour-government in Canada. The need for courageous leadership and a definite Canadian trade policy. The goals of the National Productivity Council. Finding a way to develop understanding of these forces, of each other, and developing patience to work toward the good of all Canada.